Harvests have really started to make progress this past week. All winter crops have progressed through the developmental stages and all need care and attention to ensure harvest needs are met in the coming weeks.
Given the phenomenal increase in the prices of fertilizers, but also grains (which we have never seen before), it is worth considering all crops in order to reach their maximum yield potential. Although the cost of fertilizers has increased quite a bit, the cost of agrochemicals has not increased nearly as much.
Nonetheless, the cost of applying agrochemicals is very high and these products should only be used where necessary and used with caution.
All plants should now have received all of their nitrogen. Any additional nitrogen added to winter barley after vegetative stage 32 is poorly utilized in terms of yield but can migrate into the grain to give higher protein content. This is undesirable when the barley is destined for the brewing or roasting market.
Plants are generally in 31-32 growth stage, but earlier sown plants will have the flag leaf protruding or, exceptionally, the flag leaf fully. All crops have received the first fungicide and are now reaching the right stage for growth regulators to reduce crop height.
As soon as the flag leaf appears in the barley, the harvest is about half that, so there is still work to be done. The ideal time for barley growth regulation is from growth stage 32-37 (the second node to the flag leaf is fully grown). It is often difficult to time growth regulation properly as it falls between the main applications of fungicides.
There are a number of products that can be used including Terpal, Flagstaff, Medax Max, Optimus, Padwan etc. The rate of each product depends on the culture with 6 rows requiring almost full rate but strains like Craft can only require installments of 50 or none at all (depending on the total N raised).
Be careful when using growth regulators late in the season as applying these products on very cold nights can damage crops but is also less effective at reducing crop height.
The final fungicide should be applied when the awns are peeping (or at the brush stage). Application of a fungicide at this time gives the best effect of the fungicide in terms of disease control, including Ramularia and also yield. Delaying fungicide application until the head has fully emerged will lose yield and ultimately cost you money.
Choose a fungicide with a mix of Multisite, Azole and a half rate of SDHI or Strob. Products like Folpet plus Deco+Comet or Elatus Era or Siltra etc will give good results.
All plants should have at least two-thirds of their final nitrogen applied, with the final application just as the flag leaf is out. Given the high cost of fertilizers, but offsetting the expected price of grain, the amount of nitrogen can be reduced by 15-30 kg/ha, depending on the price of nitrogen, to achieve the best yields (CAN purchase price varies between 700-1,100/t). I suspect most growers will fertilize close to the normal amount applied to their plants.
Harvests are generally around GS 31, with the third to last sticking out in full. Plants planted earlier are at the right stage for foliar 3 fungicide application, while plants sown later are likely to reach the correct growth stage later that week. It is important to split the stems and identify the emerging leaf to properly time this fungicide.
If you are unsure, get help from your local adviser/agronomist. The fungicide consists of a Multisite (Folpet @1.5 l/ha) plus Triazole + SDHI/Qii (80-100% rate), e.g. B. Revystar, Lentyma, Aquino, Peacoq, Questar, Elatus Era, Ascra Expro.
Note: Revysol and Inatreq based fungicides each recommend one application per season to maintain long term efficacy and should be combined with an additional systemic fungicide and a multisite fungicide e.g. B. folpet, are mixed.
Oats are always a great crop this time of year, and this year is no exception. Plant growth stages vary a bit, but most are around GS 32 (second node). All nitrogen should be applied at this stage, with later applications shown to reduce hectolitre weight.
Growth stage 32-33 is the most important stage for effective growth regulation. Options include; B. Moddus etc. 0.2 l/ha/Meddax Max 0.2 kg/ha + CCC 1.0 l/ha, Ceraide/K2 1.15 l/ha (maximum total dose 2.3 l/ha) or CCC 2.0 l/ha. Growers can also add disease control to this growth regulator application. Crops are generally clean, but rust on crops has been reported in the south of the country. Options depend on disease level of plants and include Prothioconazole 60% + Comet 50-60% or Boogie/Cello 70%.
Michael Hennessy is Head of Crop Knowledge at Teagasc, Oak Park
https://www.independent.ie/business/farming/tillage/why-winter-crops-now-need-care-and-attention-to-achieve-maximum-yield-potential-41586812.html Why winter crops need care and attention now to achieve maximum yield potential